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Table 3 Cases of COVID-19 in French children with Prader-Willi syndrome between March 2020 and January 2021

From: Paradoxical low severity of COVID-19 in Prader-Willi syndrome: data from a French survey on 647 patients

Clinical characteristics (n = 13)
 Age (years) 9.6 ± 4.4 [1.9–18]
 Gender (%) Female 5 (38); Male 8 (62)
 Genetic subtype (%) Deletion: 8 (62); UPD: 5 (38)
 Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 21.8 ± 10.9
 BMI Z-score 1.3 (-2.1–7.7)
 Obesity (BMI Z-score ≥ 3) 3 (23)
 Type 1 or 2 diabetes 0
 Treated apnea syndrome with nocturnal CPAP (%) 2 (15)
 Hypertension 0
 Congenital heart defect (%) 1 (8)
 Respiratory and/or cardiac failure (%) 0
Living situation at the time of COVID-19 (%)  
 Living home with family 13 (100)
 Residential group home 0
Treatments at the time of COVID-19 (%)  
 Growth hormone 13 (100)
 Thyroxine 8 (62)
 Hydrocortisone 1 (8)
 Sex Hormone therapy 1 (8)
 Vitamin D 11 (85)
 Topiramate 1 (8)
 Antipsychotics 1 (8)
COVID-19 diagnosis (%)
 Positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test 6 (46)
 Positive IgG against SARS-CoV-2 after infection 1 (8)
 Suspected diagnosis* 6 (46)
 Plaints or clinical signs (%) 10 (77)
 Asthenia 5 (38)
 Fever 4 (31)
 Cough 3 (23)
 Muscle pain 1 (8)
 Chest tightness 1 (8)
 Headache 4 (31)
 Diarrhea 2 (15)
 Not eating 2 (15)
 Anosmia 1 (8)
 No clinical sign or plaints 3 (23)
Evolution of symptomatic patients (%)  
 Hospitalization 0
 Death 0
 Complete recovery 9 (90)
 Time to complete recovery (days) 7.7 ± 5.9 [1–20]
 Partial recovery 1 (persistent asthenia)
  1. Results are expressed as mean ± SD [range] for continuous variables and as number (percentage) for categorical variables
  2. BMI body mass index, UPD uniparental disomy, CPAP continuous positive-airway pressure, RT-PCR Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, IgG immunoglobulins G
  3. *Suspected diagnosis: reporting signs and symptoms of COVID-19 and close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case in the 14 days prior to onset of symptoms (no RT-PCR test during infection and no assessment of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after infection)